Friday, July 17, 2020

This Is What Works in Facebook Headlines The 20 Most Effective Phrases

This Is What Works in Facebook Headlines The 20 Most Effective Phrases How many times have you found yourself reading an article or watching a video on a topic that you take no interest in, just because the headline caught your attention?Don’t mind counting, you probably wouldn’t be able to count every single time.This happens on regular bases to every one of us, most probably because we are humans. And that means that we are not immune when it comes to curiosity or emotions.This brings a whole new level of importance to headlines, realizing that they might be the key to boosting the engagement amongst the readers.Therefore, more and more marketers are dedicating themselves to exploring the nature of headlines with the aim of finding the most effective ones.We have gathered the data based on a research that was done and prepared some good piece of advice, all with the aim to help you write the most effective Facebook headlines.100 MILLION HEADLINES RESEARCHThe research was conducted by Steve Rayson from Buzzsumo and it relies on 100 million article headlines that were published in the period between 1st of March 2017 and 10th of May 2017.The main goal of this research was to come to the conclusion which headlines are the most effective, and which, on the contrary, would just make your potential readers keep scrolling through the dashboard.In the next section, we will focus on analyzing the data and defining concrete steps on what you should do in order to achieve higher audience engagement.THE MOST ENGAGING HEADLINESHere are the 20 most effective headlines.When we say “effective” headlines, we mean the ones that drive the most likes, shares, and comments on Facebook.As the result of this research, the three-word phrases, or trigrams, were ranked depending on their performance.1. …that will make you…The definite number one was this phrase, which came as a shock to many researchers.Analyzing what stands behind this phrase, we realized that it’s much more complex than we thought.For the start, this is a link between the action and the outcome.It states clearly what will happen if you take a specific action, guaranteeing you the positive output.For example:10 facts about life that will make you more grateful5 things you didn’t know about chocolate that will make you love it even moreThe best morning exercises that will make you kick start the dayHighlighting the outcome, our emotions get triggered and therefore, we desire to read a specific article, even though we weren’t much enthusiastic about the action itself.2. …this is why…We all want to know why some things happen, and as human beings, naturally, we seek an explanation for everything that is happening.This is why this phrase is amongst the most effective ones, driving our curiosity and satisfying our need to feel smarter and more in peace with ourselves.You see what I did there? I guarantee that you feel much better now, that you can add another thing to your knowledge list.For example:This is why people should exercise 5 minutes dai ly.This is why hummingbird feeders are often red.3. Can we guess…?What is the one topic you can always talk about?Yourself, of course! We really enjoy talking about ourselves because we always know what to say and are certain that nobody knows more in that field than us.Besides the satisfaction this provides, we also enjoy getting confirmation about some things that we believe in and generally, the picture we build of ourselves.Therefore, we often can’t resist taking a quiz that will try to guess something about us. Better say â€" that will confirm something we are proud of.For example:Can we guess what is your age based on your music preference?Can we guess your zodiac sign?4. Only X in…People are social beings but at the same time, they have a desire to be recognized as unique and completely different than the others.When it comes to quizzes that state that only a few people on this world can understand or do something, we want to be amongst those people.That is why we take these quizzes that challenge us, and when we prove that we are amongst the X population, rarely we refrain ourselves from sharing it with all of our friends on Facebook.For example:Only 5% of people can solve this test.5. The reason is…We all want to know what stands behind everything.The bigger the effect of something, the more we want to know the reason behind it.When things are explained to people, it helps them connect dots and their own thoughts, which gives them more confidence in their knowledge and understanding of things in general.For example:Have you ever seen can walking in circles for hours? The reason behind is so-called cat weed.6. …are freaking out…Drama alert! People will tell you that they don’t like drama and try to stay as far as possible from it, but will also be the first line to see a dramatic event and follow every detail from a safe distance.Whenever something unusual happens or attracts many people’ attention, we want to know every little detail a bout it, even though it doesn’t affect us.Here we are highlighting human’s curiosity once again and the fact that we want to feel a bit shocked about something, feeling safe due to it not happening directly to us.For example:People are freaking out about this new snake specie. And this is why…7. X stunning photos…Why wouldn’t you like to expose your eyes to beautiful pictures?Exactly, you can’t find the reason not to.Even though you won’t feel attracted to everything that will be shown on these pictures, you will often find yourself looking at them just to awake some positive feeling within yourself or brighten your day.For example:10 stunning photos of beautiful places around the world.These 5 stunning photos have shaken the world.8. …tears of joy…Yes, you will find this phrase in a lot of songs, but also in a lot of effective headlines.This is due to the fact that whatever stands behind the headline will probably awake strong emotions within us, which is somethin g we are definitely looking forward to.For example:After seeing this cute youtube video, I have cried tears of joy.9. This is what happens…When you read a headline that implies that there’s a clear and specific reaction to something, your brain really wants to find out more about that reaction.Headlines such as:This is what happens when you eat only fruits for 7 daysThis is what happens when you order clothes online without trying etc.Provoke our curiosity and make us read the article.10. …make you cryAgain, this is an emotional headline. This will probably make your audience want to see for themselves if the article is really that strong to make them cry.Bear in mind, exaggerating headlines just to draw attention to your articles without articles following the headline’s promise, will only make you lose your audience for good.For example:This short video will definitely make you cry.11. …give you goosebumpsThis phrase can often be linked to articles containing videos, esp ecially those of somebody singing.These are quite common in public talent shows where people, besides showing their talent, often tell their stories, and connect with the audience in that way.For example:This artist’s performance will give you goosebumps. 12. Talking about itDo you know what’s trending right now?Of course you do, because people want to stay on track with what’s popular right now and make sure they can join any conversation these days, since “that” is something everybody’s talking about!For example:People around the internet are talking about it.13. …is too cute…How many times before have you seen something cute â€" baby or an animal and just wished to squeeze it, pop it or even “eat it”?For example:This little kitten is too cute that only cold-hearted people won’t react.According to science, seeing cute things can make us almost lose control, all due to the high positive-affect.Therefore, implying that there is something that is too cute behind the headline will definitely seem appealing to many.14. …shocked to see…You would probably be surprised (shocked!) to realize how many people need drama in their life.There are many explanations to this drama phenomenon, but one thing is clear: even though you might not cause drama in your daily life on purpose, you will probably guilty enjoy to read about somebody else’s, just to remind yourself that you are doing good.For example:After watching this movie, we were shocked to see how harsh reality can be.15. …melt your heart…You know that your heart can be melted only by your partner or some cute animal and that’s it. Or is it?Whether these are really the things that melt your heart or there are some more you would add to the list, you have to admit that you enjoy the feeling.Therefore, many people are attracted to such headlines, exactly due to their desire to experience the feeling.For example:People around the glove love it. This little Pomsky dog will melt your hea rt.16. X things only…This is quite interesting. As mentioned above, people like to feel unique, but most of all, they tend to feel understood.Therefore, reading articles that are dedicated only to the role they have â€" for example, mother, architect, older sister etc. makes them feel revealed and as they belong.Headlines such as:10 things only single mothers will know5 things only English teachers can relate to10 things only highly educated people will understandThis is a great example of giving exclusivity to the article, and therefore making it more appealing to readers.17. …can’t stop laughingThis one is quite clear â€" who would mind an uncontrollable laugh, especially if they are having a bad day?All comedy shows, stand-up comedians, ever more present humor in everyday life â€" even on the job, prove that people are more likely to watch something or to stay at some place if the good laugh is present.For example:After watching “Achmed the Dead Terrorist” by Jeff Dunha m you simply can’t stop laughing.18. Top X songs…This goes both when people want to follow what’s trending, but also when people want to learn something about the completely unfamiliar topic.For example, you have been listening to rock music your whole life, but the girl you just recently met is really into pop music.Your logical next move is to search for 10 top songs in this genre, in order to impress the girl, and actually learn something about it.For example:This is the list of top 50 songs on the planet.19. Twitter reacts to…There is no easier way to see crowd explode than to follow twits.This became quite popular, and anyone who still doesn’t have an opinion on a topic that’s currently in the center of attention will most probably go to Twitter and read all arguments, in order to form it.These headlines imply drama, and articles help people stay on track, summing up the most important twits.For example:Twitter reacts to Trumps latest statement about the great Ameri can wall.20. …what happened next…You know how at the end of each episode of any TV show you’re watching; you are dying to find out what happens next. It’s the same with the headlines and articles.They say that something (usually shocking) happened and now you’re really curious to find out what exactly!BE CAREFUL! These types of headlines are becoming less and less popular. What’s more, Facebook classifies them as click baits which might cause the demotion of your headlines.For example:Little girl reached for the tiger in a zoo, and what happened next will blow your mind.HOW TO WRITE EFFECTIVE FACEBOOK HEADLINESNow that you know the 20 most effective Facebook headlines and the reason they are effective, here are some tips on how to write effective headlines on your own.Who knows, maybe during next research, yours will turn out to be the most effective one?Word of mouthIt has been proven that people have more tendencies to believe in a brand or company when somebody whom t hey trust recommends it to them.It doesn’t have to be their close friend or a family member (if you want to cover a wider audience), but also some person of influence.Try to find somebody who is well known amongst your target group and who believes in what you are providing.If they agree to collaborate, your headline could be about them recommending your brand, which was proven to get more people to read your articles or take look at what you are offering, and then actually buy it.Unbeatable factsDemonstrate integrity when you write your headlines.Make sure that your customers or consumers at the end get what you promised them in the headline and you will gain their respect.Eventually, it will become more about the content, than the actual headline, and any headline you write will be effective.Keep it simpleYou are absolutely in love with what you are offering and you could talk and write about it endlessly. There’s just one problem â€" people wouldn’t read about it endlessly. You will barely impress anyone by writing every value the reader will get by clicking on your post because barely anyone would read it.The simpler the better. Keep it short and clear so everyone can understand it and connect with it.Indicate solutionsPeople enjoy various things on the Internet, but they enjoy them, even more, when they know it’s good for them for any reason.The good tip is to include something that implies a solution or anything that will help the reader somehow.A good old trick is to use ‘How to’, but anything similar would do the work.Name the problemDon’t be afraid to mention the problem or its consequences.It has been proven that fear is one of the strongest emotions a human can feel, that can move anyone to take action.Even if that means reading the article, checking out the offer, or ordering something.Talk to your readersAsk questions directly in the headline.The best way to engage the audience is to ask them a question in the start and get them thin king right away.You can either ask yes/no questions (but provide the answer right in the next sentence) or an open question (and then indicate the solution that’s in the text).Both will do well with your customers.CliffhangerPeople by nature are curious beings who want to know everything, and if possible, immediately!All you have to do is let them know that there is something that they don’t know yet, but can really easily find out â€" just by clicking on your headline.The trick is to tell them that there’s something, but don’t reveal it immediately.Make sure you get their imagination going, and what’s more important, their desire to learn something new and feel like they’ve achieved something new!FINAL WORDMany would say that there are different approaches to getting peoples’ attention and that there is no rule.There’s some truth in that â€" every person is different and personalized approach would be the best.Unfortunately, we usually don’t have the luxury to do so; therefore we conduct similar researches and strive to find patterns.Thankfully, no matter how different we all are â€" we all have the same needs, and when it comes to them, we act similarly.Therefore, it is quite easy to define the approach and make sure to engage your audience in the most effective way.Make sure you check all the above-mentioned headlines, and especially the reason they are effective.If you know the reason behind it, if you know “why” they are effective, you can come up with a countless number of headlines that will do the job perfectly.In your further work, you can rely on the concrete steps and tips when it comes to writing the headlines, and ensure that you catch the attention of your readers.Good luck, and we are looking forward to one of your headlines becoming the next top effective one!

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain - 1081 Words

Final Huck Finn grew up in an abusive home in which he has no control over. Huck does not wish to ever go back to such a hell since one knows about such a man to do such harsh things. You’re self-wellness by in which you grew upon throughout the years has turned you into the person you are today. The people you’ve been around, the friends you’ve made, and even the enemies you’ve made have made you who you are today. Huck Finn is like you in such a way. Always trying to figure what’s right and what’s wrong. Always trying to adjust to situations he is in for the better. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Tom Sawyer, a young but brave kid, has made a gang in which he would like Huck to join. But in order for Huck to join he needs to start being more and more respectful to Ms. Watson who adopted Huck from his abusive father. Tom Sawyer, Ms. Watson, and other characters use this sort of morality building to help Huck with him being respectful t o the other folk. Sounds similar, yes? Most of our parents and friends use these types of morality’s in religion, goals, warnings, holidays, and even sometimes themselves such as if you do what they did then you’ll be just as rich as them. Every Action, every word, everything you have received, felt, and have done build your sense of right and wrong. Huck Finn grew up with his abusive father and was an aggressive kid. All he had was his dad but still loving his father, he left and was adopted by a lady by the name of Ms. Watson. HeShow MoreRelatedThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain830 Words   |  3 PagesThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is â€Å"A Great American Novel†, because of its complexity and richness. Twain writes dialogue that brings his characters to life. He creates characters with unique voice and helps the reader connect to the book. Anyone who reads it is forced to develop feelings for each character. Even though the re is a great amount of controversy over the use of some choices, such as the â€Å"n word†, it makes the book more realistic. In the beginning of the novel Huck,Read MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1103 Words   |  5 PagesDmitri Van Duine Jr English Mr. Nelson November 27th The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Written by Mark Twain filled his stories with many examples of satire as to convey a message while also writing an interesting story. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn revolves around the adventures of a young boy called Huckleberry Finn, who is about thirteen years old. Tom Sawyer is Huck’s best friend and around the same age as Huck. He is onlyRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain Essay1055 Words   |  5 PagesZambrano Mrs. Patmor AP Lit-Period 5 28 September 2016 Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 1835 Mark Twain embodies realism in almost every aspect of his writing not excluding The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which in he portrays such a lifelike setting that it almost gives you this sense of reality through the point of view of a young man that has an urge for freedom yet struggles to conform to society s norms due to his adolescence. Twain s ability to unmask the true identities of the charactersRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain931 Words   |  4 PagesWolski Mrs. Goska English 2H Period 3 22 October 2014 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Mob mentality is the way an individual’s decisions become influenced by the often unprincipled actions of a crowd. Mark Twain penned The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Twain grew up in America’s southern states during the early 1800’s, a time in which moral confusion erupted within the minds of humans. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn s protagonist is a young boy named Huck who freely travels alongRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1375 Words   |  6 Pagesmention the years spent growing and maturing physically. Teenagers are stuck in an inbetween state where they must learn who they want to become and what they want to be when they grow older. The same is true for Huckleberry Finn, from the book â€Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn† by Mark Twain. This is a book that was written in a time of great confusion over moral codes and standards. It was a world split in half by two different worlds of people; those who opposed, a nd those who promoted slavery.Read MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain2083 Words   |  9 PagesSatire in Huckleberry Finn In the novel â€Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn† by Mark Twain, we are told a story about a young boy and his slave companion’s journey down the Mississippi River and all of their encounters with other characters. Twain constructed a beautiful narrative on how young Huck Finn, the protagonist in the story, learns about the world and from other adult characters, how he is shaped into his own person. At the time this book was made however, this novel provided serious socialRead MoreMark Twain and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn1575 Words   |  6 Pages Mark Twain and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Controversy Mark Twain, born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, is a highly recognizable figure in American literature. Born in Florida, Missouri Mark Twain and his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri where Twain discovered and fell in love with the mighty Mississippi River. The river and his life in Hannibal became his inspiration and guiding light in most of his writing. Although Twain loved the river and did a great deal of traveling, he eventuallyRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1005 Words   |  5 Pages In the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn written by Mark Twain in the 19th century is about a young boy named Huck Finn and Jim, a runaway slave who go on an adventure. The two travel on a raft along the Mississippi river creating a bond and making memories. Mark Twain presents Huckleberry Finn as a dynamic character who at first views Jim as property and eventually considers Jim as a friend, showing a change in maturity. In the beginning of the book, Huck Finn clearly sees Jim as nothing more thanRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1335 Words   |  6 Pagesyear The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is placed in the top ten banned books in America. People find the novel to be oppressing and racially insensitive due to its frequent use of the n-word and the portrayal of blacks as a Sambo caricature. However, this goes against Mark Twain’s intent of bringing awareness to the racism in America. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is classified under the genre of satire and is narrated by a fictional character named Huckleberry Finn. The novelRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain810 Words   |  4 PagesBefore Mark Twain started to write two of his most famous novels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark was known to use his characters to display his own thoughts and opinions. â€Å"This device allowed him to s ay just about anything he wanted, provided he could convincingly claim he was simply reporting what others had said.† (Twain, 1283). Mark Twain used this process to be a foundation of his lectures, by manipulating his popularly with his readers. During the story

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Buddha, Buddhism And The Buddhist Philosophy - 1527 Words

Regardless of who we are or where we come from, we are unfortunate enough to be subject to a world consisting of change, pre-established social elements, opinions and beliefs, which, though we may be unaware of them while they work their magic on us, ultimately serve to wrap us in a prison of thought. At the same time, there exist modifiers which may serve to free us. Depending on the right conditions, the time, we can be fortunate enough to see through the covering pulled over our head at birth, to the true explanation of why we’re here, the truth of our existence. Because of this, I have chosen to do my research paper on Buddha, Buddhism and the Buddhist philosophy. The first thing I would like to address is the history of Buddha. When Siddhartha Gautama was born, a wise man came to his father, the king, and told him that his son would either be a great king or a great holy man. The king was worried because he wanted his son to follow in his footsteps and become king. So Siddhartha was raised in luxury and his father made sure nothing would trouble him so that he would learn to love all the earthly things and would not choose to give everything up and become a holy man. He was married to a beautiful princess of a neighboring country and they had a son, but he was still not happy. One day he went out with his chariot to see the town. As he came near the town he saw a frail old man and he was troubled by this as he had never seen anyone who was old. He left and wentShow MoreRelatedBuddhism Is Considered A Religion Or A Philosophy961 Words   |  4 Pageswhether buddhism is considered a religion or a philosophy but I believe that it is both. According to ( is a non-theistic religion or philosophy that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism inhabits several traits that consider it a religion and a philosophy. There is not a clear distinction that defines buddhism as one or the other. Some practices of Buddhism displayRead MoreHinduism: The Ancient Texts and Artistic Endeavors of India 1801 Words   |  7 Pagesfactor contributing to ancient Indian education, for Buddhism managed to extend its influence on learning as well. Even though it emerged during a time where written literature in India was already established, Buddhism managed to impact the styles of language and literature of India through the sermons, sayings, talks, and later thoughts recorded by the Buddha’s disciples (â€Å"Buddhist Influence† n.p.). Beginning during the Buddha’s lifetime, Buddhist influence on Indian art, literature, and scholasticRead MoreThe Response to the Spread of Buddhism in China Differed According to Ones Social Position594 Words   |  3 PagesThe response to the spread of Buddhism in China differed according to one’s social position. Confucian scholars and the emperor attacked Buddhism as an outlandish, barbaric belief. â€Å"The Memorial of Buddhism† written by Han Yu, a Confucian scholar, opposes Buddhism when the emperor decides to bring â€Å"the finger bone of Buddha† into the Chinese palace. He shows the unjust actions of the emperor by referring back to Confucian teachings such as keeping â€Å"[ghosts and spirits] at a distance†. The scholarRead MoreBuddhism : A New Way Of Life Without Materialistic Needs Essay1547 Words   |  7 Pagesmake part of planet earth one of the most interesting form of religious practice is Buddhism. Buddhism is the practice of finding peace within one s self by developing inner peace, wisdom and kindness. This practice dates back 2,500 years, and the founder is known as Buddha Shakyamuni. He was born a royal prince in a town called Lumbini; originally part of northern India but now makes part of Nepal. When Buddha was 29 years old, he retired from his royal life and left to the woods to follow theRead MoreA path to spiritual discovery903 Words   |  4 PagesAs Madhu Bazaz Wangu indicates, Buddhism is a path to spiritual discovery (8). Being Buddhism, a non-theistic religion, their disciples follow the monotheistic doctrine demonstrating they believe in only one deity. Siddhartha Gautama, mostly known as Buddha––the enlightened––, is the one deity Buddhists believe in. As Wangu writes, Siddhartha practiced severe self-denial and meditation before he could reach Nirvana (state of mind that ends the path of suffering) (8). Siddhartha came to the concl usionRead MoreThe Buddhist Culture For My Project1316 Words   |  6 Pages I chose to learn about the Buddhist culture for my project. I’ve always wondered how they believe and worship, and this gave me an opportunity to find out. I was bummed when I went to the Buddhist Temple in Murfreesboro to not be able to go in. I called several times and couldn’t get an answer to find out what times they held their services. I did get some pictures of the outside grounds, which were fascinating within themselves. I was surprised at how vivid and colorful the building was. When researchingRead MoreBuddhism Is A Religion Of Escapism1001 Words   |  5 PagesBuddhism is a philosophy and a religion based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama who lived approximately 566 B.C.E. Today, Buddhism has millions of followers worldwide, known as Buddhists. (Ballou, 1976) Most practicing Buddhists believe in concepts such as karma, dharma, samsara and nirvana. In addition to t hese, Buddhists base their lives and actions on the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold. Fortress (1999) explains that the name Buddha is a title that means â€Å"one who hasRead MoreEssay on Budism by Huston Smith1605 Words   |  7 PagesBuddhism As a college student that has lived and grown up in western New York, I do not have too much experience with the other religions of the world. I have grown up a Christian Protestant my whole life, and I am a firm believer in my religion. Soon after reading the chapter on Buddhism in Huston Smith’s book The World’s Religions, I came to understand and respect the Buddhist religion. I came to learn who the Buddha as a man really was, and the steps he took in becoming a religious icon. IRead More Buddhism Essay1569 Words   |  7 PagesSoon after reading the chapter on Buddhism in Huston Smith’s book The World’s Religions, I came to understand and respect the Buddhist religion. I came to learn who the Buddha as a man really was, and the steps he took in becoming a religious icon. I know understand that Buddhism is not all meditation and relaxing. There is a strict code of the four noble truths and the prescription of getting through them called the eightfold path. Much like Christianity Buddhism also has many different views onRead MoreSimilarities Between Sherlock Holmes And Buddhism1481 Words   |  6 Pagesand does not demonstrate characteristics of Buddhist philosophy and may even be a Buddha-like figure (The Boscombe Valley Mystery, 1891). This article will use the Buddhist concept of the four noble truths, characteristics of the Buddha, and the Buddhist ideas of logic and reason to determine how similar Sherlock Holmes’ personal philosophy is to Buddhist Eastern philosophy. Buddhism, which is not clearly defined as being either a religion or philosophy, dates back to Siddhartha Gautama in 450 BCE

Liberty for the High School Student Free Essays

Competition is becoming a key part of high school academics. It seems as if everyday it becomes harder to be accepted into the college of your dreams. This is causing high stress levels for teenagers. We will write a custom essay sample on Liberty for the High School Student or any similar topic only for you Order Now what with worrying about looking good, keeping friends, doing well in school, and the growing pressure to plan your life by the time you’re 16, it’s amazing that we all haven’t gone crazy. Due to high stress caused by homework, and lack of sleep, high school students should receive lighter loads from schools. The students of today are stressed, not from the assumed bullying or peer pressure, but from homework and tests. â€Å"Most of the stress is from academics as opposed to the typical assumption of bullying or social issues. † States an article from Mind Shift. Parents assume that things like that are the cause of the stress, but the real problem is homework. Then there is the case of Nora. A normal high school student, pressured with doing perfectly in school. When she received her grade card and saw that she did not have a perfect 4. 0, she lost it. Her mother found her in tears, and realized that it was time to Logan 2 intervene. Nora had been increasingly irritable and tired, and she also suffered from headaches. She is not the only one. Students everywhere, including myself and friends of mine, are tired, frustrated and sick. While stress can be healthy for our body, too much can severely harm us. According to an article on the website WebMd, reviewed by Doctor Joseph Goldberg, large amounts of stress cause headaches, higher blood pressure, heart and skin issues and conditions, and depression- the list goes on. These symptoms are not just found in adults, they are also found in teenagers. High stress levels early on in life will only lead to physical and mental problems in the future. The mental state of teenagers justifies that our load is too heavy. It is not an unknown fact that students these days do not have a lot of free time. We wake up at six, go to school, spend all day working, have extra curriculars after school, and all in all, most students do not end up returning home until around seven o’clock at night. We are then expected to help with dinner, help clean up dinner, and take care of other chores before we spend two to three hours working on homework assigned during the day. At this rate, the typical high school student is not getting to bed until close to 11 o’clock. Thus, forcing them to cope with six hours of sleep per night; far from what is needed. Sleep is extremely important for teenagers. It affects our growth, our mental health, and our safety behind the wheel- it is food for our brain. The National Sleep Foundation suggests that teenagers sleep for about 9 ? hours per night; saying that 8 ? works for some. But in all reality, this is far from the amount of sleep teenagers are actually getting. The NSF found Logan 3 that only %15 of teenagers are getting that 8 ? hours. So, how does this lack of sleep affect our behavior, and success in school? It is shown that lack of sleep causes aggressive behaviors and a reduced immune system. Therefore, we are sick more often causing us to miss school. It is also shown that it becomes harder to focus, and listen. therefore, we do not learn. How do teachers expect us to complete tasking assignments if we are unable to focus, learn, and listen? Our lack of sleep, and increasingly reduced amounts of free time indicates the need for less time-consuming work. Parents and teachers, somehow, have come to believe that all of this is â€Å"shaping us for the real world†. Please explain to me how raising our stress levels and, ultimately, harming our physical and mental health is helping us? Today, we are expected to be able to manage an almost adult life by the time we are sixteen, but we need to spend more time learning and exploring all of our options. If it has become the norm to change majors three time before you graduate college, then something is severely wrong with current society. Teenagers who are over loaded with after school work are becoming less and less mentally and physically stable. High schools can approach a new style of teaching, and issue curriculums that include less after school work. Issuing new types of curriculums including less after school work would most effectively help resolve the problems. I highly doubt that the cost of this solution would be very high at all. I believe that states could afford this. The general public will find the solution acceptable. When parents and teachers see how bad the situation is becoming, they will be able to convince policy makers to initiate Logan 4 the change. The parents of the students are the ones who really need to change. They are responsible for realizing the severity of the situation. As the writer of this piece I hope to show the public that times are changing; and not necessarily for the better. It is my responsibility to show this. How to cite Liberty for the High School Student, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Tartuffe Summary 2 Essays - Film, Tartuffe, Vocal Music,

Tartuffe Summary 2 Molire was born Jean-Baptiste Poquelin Molire was born in 1622 in Paris, France and died there in 1673 (Molire, p.1). He spent his life writing plays, acting, and managing the stage, according to Encyclopedia Britannica and is known as the greatest of all writers of French comedy (p. 1). Recently, I was able to see one of his best known plays of all times on campus at Oklahoma Baptist University in Shawnee, Oklahoma. According to the program given to me at the theatre that evening, the play was transcribed into the English language by a man by the name of Richard Wilbur (Molires Tartuffe). Tartuffe (also sometimes referred to as The Imposter) is set in the realm of seventeenth-century Parisian high society during the reign of King Louis XIV (Tartuffe, p.1). This paper is a summary of my experience at the theatre. The cast of the play at Oklahoma Baptist University was performed by current students and previous students and consisted of thirteen different people in acting roles. In addition, there were eight members of the artistic staff and twelve members of the production staff who helped to make the production a huge success. The director for this production was Dr. Jeffrey Wells, PhD who is an Associate Professor of Performance and the Director of OBU Theatre and has been the director for greater than twenty different full-length plays at the college level (Molires Tartuffe). The characters in the play were few but, they were extremely powerful. There was Tartuffe, the villain who deceived everyone into thinking he was a devout Christian focused only on the things of the Lord. In reality, he was a hypocrite who took advantage of all of the other characters as used them as a means to his own end. Then, there was the father, who believed everything that Tartuffe said and allowed him to move into his home and entrusted him with his most valuable possessions. Ironically, Tartuffe had been making secret advances to the fathers wife all along. There were also male and female siblings present in the play who tried to tell their father that this man was not to be trusted. The son was especially vocal about it. Another character in the play was the mother of the Orgon, the father. She too had fallen totally for everything that Tartuffe had told them. In addition, there was Valre, who was to marry the daughter, Mariane. One of the calmest and most endearing charact ers was the brother-in-law who tried to keep the rest of the family calm and acting with reason. One of the funniest of characters was the daughters maid, Dorine. Additionally, there were a few of other characters M. Loyal, the process server who brought them eviction papers, the two maids of the grandmother, and the kings man who gave them the greatest news of all. When the play began, the grandmother was singing the praises of the houseguest Tartuffe and encouraging her family members to become more like him because he was above reproach. She rails at them when the house members try to tell her differently concerning Tartuffe. She refuses to believe and leaves the castle. Then, the members of the castle discussed Tartuffe and how Orgon was being deceived. They came up with a plan to confront him about it. Soon, the father enters, going about his business. As various members try to talk to him, he can think of nothing but Tartuffe. It was during this scene that the father told his daughter that he would like for her to marry Tartuffe instead of her fianc. Mariane was extremely distraught by this; however, she did not have the guts to speak up to her father about it. Before long, Orgon takes his leave and the fianc comes barreling in because he has heard the news of his broken engagement with the daughter of Orgon. Dorine, having overheard all t hat had surpassed, deemed to join with the young couple and started to formulate a plan to expose the hypocrisy of Tartuffe. The next scene, found the wife in the dining room and Tartuffe coming into the room. At that time, Tartuffe begins to talk about his love for

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Cognitive Ergonomics

Cognitive Ergonomics Introduction Cognitive ergonomics is focused on modifying processes to suit the human capability (Budnick 2001, p. 1). Ergonomics in its entirety is focused on redesigning processes to suit human meaning. This can be done through modifying equipments, tools, environments and such like elements to increase efficiency or production (Budnick 2001, p. 1).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Cognitive Ergonomics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, a lifting job can be redesigned to happen at the waist level for ease of functions; or a tool can be redesigned to reduce awkward postures and instead be more comfortable for human use (Robertson 1995, p. 279). There are many other applications that employ the concept of cognitive economics and some of them include the design of software interfaces (for easy human use), the design of airplane cockpits and automobile controls to reduce human errors and the likes. The concep t of cognitive ergonomics is especially relied on when designing complex machines and hi-tech equipments because they are normally difficult to operate, thereby posing a challenge to many people, regarding how to operate them (Cohen 1997, p. 2). For example, a hi-tech mobile phone may not necessarily cause an accident but if it poses a challenge to customers regarding its operability, it may eventually turn out to be a market failure (because it will be shunned by customers). In industrial processes, the concept of cognitive ergonomics cannot be overemphasized because if a plant or equipment is poorly designed, it may consequently lead to the occurrence of errors or accidents, besides increasing the probability of reduced production or the production of low quality goods (Talty 1988, p. 702). Often, people are known to over-trust ergonomics but in other times, they are known to mistrust the concept altogether (Moray 2005, p. 546). For instance, if a ship’s system indicates th at all the valves are in working condition, but in real sense, not all of them are working as perfectly as they should, the captain may carry out subsequent procedures based on the assumption that, all the valves are in working condition.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This could lead to an accident (Shahbazian 2008, p. 165). Often, people would blame the captain for the accident, but in real sense, the systems are to be blamed. This is a clear example of an over-trust in ergonomics. A case of ergonomics mistrust has also been evidenced in the past. For instance, in an American prison, administrators installed motion sensors to trigger an alarm if a prisoner tried to escape. Within the first month of installation, the motion sensors went off all the time because it was triggered by wind motions and flying animals. This prompted the officers to start ignoring the s ensors. One inmate took advantage of the officers’ attitudes and managed to climb off the prison walls into freedom. The Importance of cognitive ergonomics can therefore not be underestimated because in the above scenario, if the same situation was observed in systems, such as fire alarms, the consequences would be disastrous and adverse. Cognitive ergonomics is therefore crucial in the society because almost everything is controlled by systems. This study however focuses on a case of establishing cognitive ergonomic issues of the Toyota Pruis model to establish strategies that can be used to improve the same. Since this study is focused on the cognitive ergonomic issues of the Toyota Prius model, emphasis will be made on the vehicle’s controls. To do so, a brief description of the product will be made in the first part of this paper, and secondly, ergonomic principles will be applied to the product to constitute the second part of the paper. In subsequent sections of the study, the ergonomic principles identified will be used to identify how best to redesign the car’s system controls. Finally, a summary of the study will be contained in the conclusion segment of the paper. Product The Toyota Prius model plays a significant role in the evolution of the global automotive industry because the model is a â€Å"green† car and so far, it has had immense success in the global automotive market (Green Car Congress 2011, p. 1). In California, the Toyota Prius model was rated one of the cleanest vehicles in America because it is run on a hybrid power engine (Green Car Congress 2011, p. 1). The Toyota hybrid car was first launched in Japan (in the year 1997), and since the year 2001, when it was launched in other markets across the globe, the car has been received very well by the consumers (Product Team 2011). So far, Toyota Prius model has been launched in more than 70 markets across the globe but its highest success has been witnessed in A sian markets and Northern Europe.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Cognitive Ergonomics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 2008, the model was rated one of the highest selling vehicles across the globe because vehicle sales reached the one million mark in the same year (Green Car Congress 2011, p. 1). Two years after that, the company attained the two million vehicles sales mark (Abuelsamid 2011). Since the Toyota Pius model has received great sales across major world markets, there has been increased interest about the vehicles ergonomics especially regarding the vehicles safety. Seeking a vehicle with the right type of cognitive ergonomic safety controls is not a simple task for people willing to find the right type of car for their convenience. Having the right car with the right cognitive ergonomic control is however very important in today’s society because many people spend most of their time driving (w hen compared to the past). Vehicle safety is an important part of cognitive ergonomics because safety is an essential determinant of vehicle sales. In other words, consumers are becoming increasingly aware about the need to buy vehicles which have a high safety standard. This standard can be determined by a vehicle’s safety controls. The Toyota Prius model is special in this regard because the car is fitted with power seats, automatic headlights, automatic climate control features and selective parking lights, all which add to the vehicle’s cognitive ergonomic features (Silverman 2011, p. 1). The selection and design of a right ergonomic car is often important in the automotive industry because many individuals seek products which are safe and easy to use (Dainoff 2007, p. 19). The market has a variety of ergonomic cars, but it would be misleading for anyone to buy a car, simply because it is deemed â€Å"ergonomic†. In this context, it is important to note that , ergonomic cars are designed to suit a variety of clients, but the variety is evidence enough that not everybody will find ergonomic cars appropriate for their use. For instance, some cars are designed to suit people of different genders, disabled people and the likes. Moreover, not all ergonomic cars blend well with a market’s environment, or even how a given terrain is perceived.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The right selection of an ergonomic car is therefore a tricky affair (but yet a simple one) because the right ergonomic car is only obtained when it suits the user’s purpose and safety requirements (Reilly 2007, p. 12). Moreover, the right ergonomic car should also suit the user’s task. From this analysis, it is important to understand that, the right ergonomic car can be obtained, although the process may be cumbersome. Application of Ergonomic Principles Recent cognitive ergonomic trends in the automotive industry incline towards developing cars with a high ease of use and a strong sense of automation (Silverman 2011, p. 1). Disabled drivers using the Toyota Prius model have benefitted a lot from the focus on ease of use and automation. For instance, in the Toyota Prius model, the automatic temperature feature has been cited as a major feature in the user control panel because users only have to set the temperature right (at 22 degrees Celsius) and the car does the r est, (in ensuring safety concerns are upheld) (Silverman 2011, p. 1). However, the Toyota Prius model falls short of accommodating all its customer subgroups. The car’s ease of reading control instructions is especially wanting, when it is perceived in the context of elderly drivers using the car. The text sizes in the car’s controls are small, and elderly drivers may find it difficult to read the small print when driving. Not only do elderly drivers find the readability of the texts difficult, other drivers may find it difficult to read the text too because when driving, a lot of attention is focused on the wheel as opposed to reading texts on the car’s dashboard. Since the readability of the user interface is wanting, drivers waste a lot of time trying to understand the commands on the car’s dashboard. This technical fault may be dreadful when driving because drivers are likely to cause an accident if their attention is shifted from the road. The positi on of the Prius model steering wheel is also placed in a wrong position which inhibits the visibility of the vehicles controls. Moreover, the high steering position is a barrier to good visibility when driving. Experts note that, this poor steering position obstructs the driver’s view of blind spots and may subsequently cause accidents (Silverman 2011, p. 1). The control panel of the Toyota Prius model is also a victim of poor lighting which hampers the visibility of texts in the control dashboard. The lighting is deemed too dim by most drivers and therefore, they have to strain to understand what is written in the control panel. People with poor visibility are therefore likely to find the readability of the texts on the control panel very poor. This may cause an accident or engine failure if there is a communication breakdown between the car’s system and the driver. On another negative front, the Prius model is criticized for lacking an adjustable seat height that fac ilitates easy visibility of the road. Other cars which lack this feature are criticized for poor visibility of the road because they fail to factor the average distance of driver visibility, between the driver’s eye level and the dashboard (Silverman 2011, p. 1). This distance always varies because the height of the driver seat fails to allow the driver to have the maximum visibility of the road. This feature is more serious for short drivers because they do not have the ability to see the road at all. Cars which do not allow for easy adjustability of the driver seat hinder the driver’s ability to have a maximum view of the road. The Toyota Prius model has however shown some positive cognitive ergonomic attributes in the development of its recent models. This observation is based on the fact that, recent models have been designed with a hands-free device to enable drivers to communicate without deviating their attention from driving. This control device was recommended for integration into the car’s user interface after it was affirmed that, driver attention was consistently lost with the absence of a hands-free device in most cars (Silverman 2011, p. 1). The Prius model was therefore designed to include this feature and it has proved beneficial to most users who want to communicate over the phone without putting their lives at risk by using a handheld mobile. Moreover, this feature has made the compliance to new automotive legislation in the automotive sector very easy. Most automotive manufactures are nowadays required to integrate hands-free mobile features in their cars, to reduce chances of vehicle accidents caused by the use of handheld mobile phones (Silverman 2011, p. 1). This is a positive cognitive ergonomic feature for the Toyota Prius model. Recommendations To rectify the small font size hindering the readability of the user interface, it is crucial to redesign the user interface of the vehicle control system to accommodate lar ge texts. Large fonts should therefore be used to improve user readability and improve the overall understandability of the information conveyed (Sedlack 2011, p. 1). Achieving this objective may involve changing the entire control software or accommodating a user interface where drivers can change the size of the fonts, depending on their readability level. For instance, the elderly may have the opportunity to increase the size of the fonts, while young drivers may find that reducing the size of the fonts is effective. Regardless of the variables, the drivers would be in a position to adjust the font’s size to suit their reading capabilities. To correct the poor seat height that hinders the drivers’ visibility of the road, users or buyers of ergonomic cars should be able to identify certain common features of any good driver ergonomic seat. These features identify the benchmarked factors to be considered before selecting the right ergonomic car. Also, these benchmark features should be useful to all drivers, regardless of their purpose of car use. The first benchmark feature is adjustability. Adjustability is crucial in cognitive car ergonomics, especially in defining the right seat height to be set by the driver because at times, it is difficult for automotive companies to design seats which are suitable for all heights (International Labour Office 1996, p. 138). However, adjustability should also be evidenced in other features of the seat to enable the driver have maximum visibility of the road. The depth of the seat is also important in the selection of the right ergonomic seat because the right ergonomic seat should be suitable for tall and short drivers. The last benchmark feature is stability. Stability is important for the drivers’ comfort because unstable seats are known to be frustrating and possibly dangerous to drivers. Stability is crucial because it sustains driver concentration on the road. The standard base should be at lea st five-points (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety 2005). To rectify the poor brightness hindering the visibility of the driver interface panel, it is important for the interface designers to integrate a lighting control system that is able to adjust the brightness of the texts (or its background), depending on the lighting environment in the car. When it is too bright, the texts should be brighter to make the texts more visible and when it is darker, the texts should still be bright to enable the users to easily read the controls. To rectify the poor steering position hindering the visibility of the driver’s view, it is crucial to observe an important ergonomic feature in the automotive industry which dictates that, the driver needs to have enough space between the steering wheel and the legs (Silverman 2011, p. 1). The same distance should be maintained between the control dashboard and the steering wheel for easy visibility. This adjustment ensures drivers have the maximum view of the road and vehicle controls. It also ensures that drivers are in a good position to control the vehicle and comprehend the engine’s attributes from the control system. Conclusion Designing the best cognitive ergonomic controls for the Toyota Prius model is a matter of precision. However, the user’s preference is at the centre of the design process because this study establishes that, not all ergonomic cars are suitable for use in all environments. Moreover, not all aspects of a car’s ergonomic controls can be designed for everyone. This is the main motivation for categorizing drivers into different profiles with different needs. For instance, this paper categorizes the drivers into disabled or elderly drivers. From this understanding, it is crucial for the designers of the Prius model to consider the cognitive ergonomic needs of the users. This should especially be observed during the design of the car’s user interface because i t influences important issues on car performance, such as safety. However, considering the fact that, not all cars can be designed for everyone, this paper establishes several benchmarks, in terms of recommendations that should be factored at the design stage in the manufacture of the Toyota Prius model. From this understanding, this paper advocates for a strong focus on the interface font size, interface text brightness, driver steering position and the driver’s seat height and depth. In making most users comfortable, it is crucial to ensure the fonts and brightness of the texts in the user interface board of the car is easily adjustable to ensure all drivers comprehend information conveyed in the user control board. It is also crucial for the steering position to be placed in a manner that allows for the full view of the road and the user interface on the vehicle’s dashboard. The seat height should also be positioned in the same manner so that drivers can have a maxi mum view of the road. The recommendations provided in this study should be the default standards to be used in the automotive industry. For instance, if the adjustable features are installed in the user interface, many users would find the Toyota Prius model appropriate for their use. References Abuelsamid, S. (2011) Toyota Tops 2 Million Hybrid Sales Worldwide (Online) Available at: . Budnick, P. (2001) What is Cognitive Ergonomics? (Online) Available at: . Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (2005) Ergonomic Chair (Online) Available at: . Cohen, A. (1997) Elements of Ergonomics Programs: A Primer Based On Workplace  Evaluations of Musculoskeletal Disorders. New York, DIANE Publishing. Dainoff, M. (2007) Ergonomics and health aspects of work with computers: international  conference, EHAWC 2007, he ld as part of HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22-27: proceedings. New York, Springer. Green Car Congress. (2011) Worldwide Prius Cumulative Sales Top 2M Mark; Toyota  Reportedly Plans Two New Prius Variants for the US By End of 2012 (Online) Available at: 2010-10-07. International Labour Office. (1996) Ergonomic Checkpoints: Practical and Easy-To-  Implement Solutions For Improving Safety, Health And Working Conditions. New York, International Labour Organization. Moray, N. (2005) Ergonomics: Major Writings. London, Routledge. Product Team. (2011) 2008 Toyota Prius (Online) Available at: . Reilly, M. (2007) An Ergonomics Guide to Computer Workstations. New York, AIHA. Robertson, S. (1995) Contemporary Ergonomics. London, Taylor Francis. Sedlack, W. (2011) The I mportance of Readability in Good Website Design (Online) Available at: . Shahbazian, E. (2008) Harbour Protection through Data Fusion Technologies. New York, Springer. Silverman, J. (2011) How Car Ergonomics Work (Online) Available at: . Talty, J. (1988) Industrial Hygiene Engineering: Recognition, Measurement, Evaluation,  And Control. New York, William Andrew.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

World War II Turning Points in the Pacific

World War II Turning Points in the Pacific Following the attack on Pearl Harbor and other Allied possessions around the Pacific, Japan swiftly moved to expand its empire. In Malaya, Japanese forces under General Tomoyuki Yamashita executed a lightning campaign down the peninsula, forcing superior British forces to retreat to Singapore. Landing on the island on February 8, 1942, Japanese troops compelled General Arthur Percival to surrender six days later. With the fall of Singapore, 80,000 British and Indian troops were captured, joining the 50,000 taken earlier in the campaign (Map). In the Netherlands East Indies, Allied naval forces attempted make a stand at the Battle of the Java Sea on February 27. In the main battle and in actions over the next two days, the Allies lost five cruisers and five destroyers, effectively ending their naval presence in the region. Following the victory, Japanese forces occupied the islands, seizing their rich supplies of oil and rubber (Map). Invasion of the Philippines To the north, on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, the Japanese, who had landed in December 1941, drove US and Filipino forces, under General Douglas MacArthur, back to the Bataan Peninsula and captured Manila. In early January, the Japanese began attacking the Allied line across Bataan. Though stubbornly defending the peninsula and inflicting heavy casualties, US and Filipino forces were slowly pushed back and supplies and ammunition began to dwindle (Map). Battle of Bataan With the US position in the Pacific crumbling, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to leave his headquarters on the fortress island of Corregidor and relocate to Australia. Departing on March 12, MacArthur turned over command of the Philippines to General Jonathan Wainwright. Arriving in Australia, MacArthur made a famous radio broadcast to the people of the Philippines in which he promised I Shall Return. On April 3, the Japanese launched a major offensive against the Allied lines on Bataan. Trapped and with his lines shattered, Major General Edward P. King surrendered his remaining 75,000 men to the Japanese on April 9. These prisoners endured the Bataan Death March which saw approximately 20,000 die (or in some cases escape) en route to POW camps elsewhere on Luzon. Fall of the Philippines With Bataan secure, the Japanese commander, Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma, focused his attention on the remaining US forces on Corregidor. A small fortress island in Manila Bay, Corregidor served as the Allied headquarters in the Philippines. Japanese troops landed on the island on the night of May 5/6 and met fierce resistance. Establishing a beachhead, they were quickly reinforced and pushed the American defenders back. Later that day Wainwright asked Homma for terms and by May 8 the surrender of the Philippines was complete. Though a defeat, the valiant defense of Bataan and Corregidor bought valuable time for Allied forces in the Pacific to regroup. Bombers from Shangri-La In an effort to boost public morale, Roosevelt authorized a daring raid on the home islands of Japan. Conceived by Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle and Navy Captain Francis Low, the plan called for the raiders to fly B-25 Mitchell medium bombers from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet (CV-8), bomb their targets, and then continue on to friendly bases in China. Unfortunately on April 18, 1942, Hornet was sighted by a Japanese picket boat, forcing Doolittle to launch 170 miles from the intended take-off point. As a result, the planes lacked the fuel to reach their bases in China, forcing the crews to bail out or crash their aircraft. While the damage inflicted was minimal, the raid achieved the desired morale boost. Also, it stunned the Japanese, who had believed the home islands to be invulnerable to attack. As a result, several fighter units were recalled for defensive use, preventing them from fighting at the front. When asked where the bombers took off from, Roosevelt stated that They came from our secret base at Shangri-La. The Battle of the Coral Sea With the Philippines secured, the Japanese sought to complete their conquest of New Guinea by capturing Port Moresby. In doing so they hoped to bring the US Pacific Fleets aircraft carriers into battle so that they could be destroyed. Alerted to the impending threat by decoded Japanese radio intercepts, the Commander-in-Chief of the US Pacific Fleet, Admiral Chester Nimitz, dispatched the carriers USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Lexington (CV-2) to the Coral Sea to intercept the invasion force. Led by Rear Admiral Frank J. Fletcher, this force was soon to encounter Admiral Takeo Takagis covering force consisting of the carriers Shokaku and Zuikaku, as well as the light carrier Shoho (Map). On May 4, Yorktown launched three strikes against the Japanese seaplane base at Tulagi, crippling its reconnaissance capabilities and sinking a destroyer. Two days later, land-based B-17 bombers spotted and unsuccessfully attacked the Japanese invasion fleet. Later that day, both carrier forces began actively searching for each other. On May 7, both fleets launched all of their aircraft, and succeeded in finding and attacking secondary units of the enemy. The Japanese heavily damaged the oiler Neosho and sunk the destroyer USS Sims. American aircraft located and sunk Shoho. Fighting resumed on May 8, with both fleets launching massive strikes against the other. Dropping out of the sky, US pilots hit Shokaku with three bombs, setting it on fire and putting it out of action. Meanwhile, the Japanese attacked Lexington, hitting it with bombs and torpedoes. Though stricken, Lexingtons crew had the ship stabilized until fire reached an aviation fuel storage area causing a massive explosion. The ship was soon abandoned and sunk to prevent capture. Yorktown was also damaged in the attack. With Shoho sunk and Shokaku badly damaged, Takagi decided to retreat, ending the threat of invasion. A strategic victory for the Allies, the Battle of the Coral Sea was the first naval battle fought entirely with aircraft. Yamamotos Plan Following the Battle of Coral Sea, the commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, devised a plan to draw the remaining ships of the US Pacific Fleet into a battle where they could be destroyed. To do this, he planned to invade the island of Midway, 1,300 miles northwest of Hawaii. Critical to Pearl Harbors defense, Yamamoto knew the Americans would send their remaining carriers to protect the island. Believing the US to only have two carriers operational, he sailed with four, plus a large fleet of battleships and cruisers. Through the efforts of US Navy cryptanalysts, who had broken the Japanese JN-25 naval code, Nimitz was aware of the Japanese plan and dispatched the carriers USS Enterprise (CV-6) and USS Hornet, under Rear Admiral Raymond Spruance, as well as the hastily repaired Yorktown, under Fletcher, to the waters north of Midway to intercept the Japanese. The Tide Turns: The Battle of Midway At 4:30 AM on June 4, the commander of the Japanese carrier force, Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, launched a series of strikes against Midway Island. Overwhelming the islands small air force, the Japanese pounded the American base. While returning to the carriers, Nagumos pilots recommended a second strike on the island. This prompted Nagumo to order his reserve aircraft, which had been armed with torpedoes, to be rearmed with bombs. As this process was underway, one of his scout planes reported locating the US carriers. Hearing this, Nagumo reversed his rearmament command in order to attack the ships. As the torpedoes were being put back on Nagumos aircraft, American planes appeared over his fleet. Using reports from their own scout planes, Fletcher and Spruance began launching aircraft around 7:00 AM. The first squadrons to reach the Japanese were the TBD Devastator torpedo bombers from Hornet and Enterprise. Attacking at low level, they did not score a hit and suffered heavy casualties. Though unsuccessful, the torpedo planes pulled down the Japanese fighter cover, which cleared the way for the American SBD Dauntless dive bombers. Striking at 10:22, they scored multiple hits, sinking the carriers Akagi, Soryu, and Kaga. In response, the remaining Japanese carrier, Hiryu, launched a counterstrike that twice disabled Yorktown. That afternoon, US dive bombers returned and sunk Hiryu to seal the victory. His carriers lost, Yamamoto abandoned the operation. Disabled, Yorktown was taken under tow, but was sunk by the submarine I-168 en route to Pearl Harbor. To the Solomons With the Japanese thrust in the central Pacific blocked, the Allies devised a plan to prevent the enemy from occupying the southern Solomon Islands and using them as bases for attacking Allied supply lines to Australia. To accomplish this goal, it was decided to land on the small islands of Tulagi, Gavutu, and Tamambogo, as well as on Guadalcanal where the Japanese were building an airfield. Securing these islands would also be the first step towards isolating the main Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain. The task of securing the islands largely fell to the 1st Marine Division led by Major General Alexander A. Vandegrift. The Marines would be supported at sea by a task force centered on the carrier USS Saratoga (CV-3), led by Fletcher, and an amphibious transport force commanded by Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner. Landing at Guadalcanal On August 7, the Marines landed on all four islands. They met fierce resistance on Tulagi, Gavutu, and Tamambogo, but were able to overwhelm the 886 defenders who fought to the last man. On Guadalcanal, the landings went largely unopposed with 11,000 Marines coming ashore. Pressing inland, they secured the airfield the next day, renaming it Henderson Field. On August 7 and 8, Japanese aircraft from Rabaul attacked the landing operations (Map). These attacks were beaten off by aircraft from Saratoga. Due to low fuel and concerned about further loss of aircraft, Fletcher decided to withdraw his task force on the night of the 8th. With his air cover removed, Turner had no choice but follow, despite the fact that less than half of the Marines equipment and supplies had been landed. That night the situation worsened when Japanese surface forces defeated and sank four Allied (3 US, 1 Australian) cruisers at the Battle of Savo Island. The Fight for Guadalcanal After consolidating their position, the Marines completed Henderson Field and established a defensive perimeter around their beachhead. On August 20, the first aircraft arrived flying in from the escort carrier USS Long Island. Dubbed the Cactus Air Force, the aircraft at Henderson would prove vital in the coming campaign. In Rabaul, Lieutenant General Harukichi Hyakutake was tasked with retaking the island from the Americans and Japanese ground forces were routed to Guadalcanal, with Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi taking command at the front. Soon the Japanese were launching probing attacks against the Marines lines. With the Japanese bringing reinforcements to the area, the two fleets met at the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on August 24-25. An American victory, the Japanese lost the light carrier Ryujo and were unable to bring their transports to Guadalcanal. On Guadalcanal, Vandegrifts Marines worked on strengthening their defenses and benefited from the arrival of additional supplies. Overhead, the aircraft of the Cactus Air Force flew daily to defend the field from Japanese bombers. Prevented from bringing transports to Guadalcanal, the Japanese began delivering troops at night using destroyers. Dubbed the Tokyo Express, this approach worked, but deprived the soldiers of all their heavy equipment. Beginning on September 7, the Japanese began attacking the Marines position in earnest. Ravaged by disease and hunger, the Marines heroically repulsed every Japanese assault. Fighting Continues Reinforced in mid-September, Vandegrift expanded and completed his defenses. Over the next several weeks, the Japanese and Marines battled back and forth, with neither side gaining an advantage. On the night of October 11/12, US ships under, Rear Admiral Norman Scott defeated the Japanese in the Battle of Cape Esperance, sinking a cruiser and three destroyers. The fighting covered the landing of US Army troops on the island and prevented reinforcements from reaching the Japanese. Two nights later, the Japanese dispatched a squadron centered on the battleships Kongo and Haruna, to cover transports heading to Guadalcanal and to bombard Henderson Field. Opening fire at 1:33 AM, the battleships struck the airfield for nearly an hour and half, destroying 48 aircraft and killing 41. On the 15th, the Cactus Air Force attacked the Japanese convoy as it unloaded, sinking three cargo ships. Guadalcanal Secured Beginning on October 23, Kawaguchi launched a major offensive against Henderson Field from the south. Two nights later, they nearly broke through Marines line, but were repulsed by Allied reserves. As the fighting was raging around Henderson Field, the fleets collided at the Battle of Santa Cruz on October 25-27. Though a tactical victory for the Japanese, having sunk Hornet, they suffered high losses among their air crews and were forced to retreat. The tide on Guadalcanal finally turned in the Allies favor following the naval Battle of Guadalcanal on November 12-15. In a series of aerial and naval engagements, US forces sank two battleships, a cruiser, three destroyers, and eleven transports in exchange for two cruisers and seven destroyers. The battle gave the Allies naval superiority in the waters around Guadalcanal, allowing for massive reinforcements to land and the beginning of offensive operations. In December, the battered 1st Marine Division was withdrawn and replaced by XIV Corps. Attacking the Japanese on January 10, 1943, XIV Corps forced the enemy to evacuate the island by February 8. The six month campaign to take the island was one of the longest of the Pacific war and was the first step in pushing back the Japanese.